Engineering Law – Final Certification & Defences thereto

The issuing of a final certificate in terms of a building contract carries with it certain legal consequences for Employers and Principle Agents (normally Architects, Quantity Surveyors or Engineers). In the case of Ocean Diners (Pty) Ltd V Golden Hill Construction the Court clarified the legal position.

These consequences depend in the first instance on the proper interpretation of the applicable contractual terms. Where a building agreement provides that a final certificate shall constitute conclusive evidence as to the sufficiency of the works and materials, as well as of the value thereof, it is determinative of the respective rights and obligations of the parties in relation to matters covered by the certificate. The certificate therefore constitutes (in the absence of a valid defence) conclusive evidence of the value of the works and the amount due to the contractor.


The Court found that the certificate embodies a binding obligation on the part of the employer to pay that amount and gives rise to a new cause of action (subject to the terms of the contract). The failure of the employer to make payment as contractually stipulated entitles the contractor to sue on the certificate.

If the effect of a building contract is to confer finality upon a certificate validly issued, it cannot be withdrawn or cancelled by an architect in order to correct mistakes of fact or value in it, unless the contract provides for it, alternatively such an arrangement is agreed to by the parties.

Therefore, once the architect has issued the final certificate, he is functus officio insofar as the certificate and matters pertaining thereto are concerned. That being so, the architect cannot withdraw or cancel the final certificate.

A final certificate is not even open to attack because it was produced on erroneous reports of the agent of the employer or the negligence of the employer’s architect. The failure of the employer’s professional team to properly scrutinise the claims put forward by the contractor and to rectify any errors, or their possible negligence in failing to satisfy themselves as to the correctness of the claims and valuations before issuing the certificate, will accordingly not provide a defence to an action on the certificate. It can also not provide a basis for the cancellation or withdrawal of the certificate by the architect.


An undertaking by an employer in a building contract that a final certificate shall be conclusive evidence of the employer’s indebtedness is not in the least offensive to public policy. A party may also contractually agree to abandon his ordinary right to prove that an admission was wrongly made (on his behalf by his principle agent). Such a contractual term is not in itself against public policy.

The purpose of such a clause is to bring about finality in the respective rights and obligations of the parties. It also obviates the need for litigation over what are likely to be minor issues. To ensure this, the parties contractually bind themselves to accept as final and conclusive the certificate of a professional person they are entitled to expect will act fairly and impartially. Its provisions cannot therefore be said to be contrary to public considerations.


The certificate is, however, not indefensible. It is subject to all defences that may be raised in an action based on a final certificate. Any defence available to the employer, or on which the employer seeks to rely, ought to be pleaded.

All authorities indicate that negligent or innocent misrepresentation (relating to an architect’s certificate) would not be a valid defence to a claim on a final certificate. Possible defences to the certificate would be limited to considerations offensive to public policy, such as fraud.


When it is known that the final certificate is not entirely accurate in relation to either the valuation reflected therein or the amount due to the contractor, it would not be contrary to public policy to enforce it. Public policy is largely concerned with the potential for manifest unfairness or injustice within a given situation.

Where the employer has suffered damage through a negligent failure on the part of either his quantity surveyor or architect to act in his best interests, he would (subject to prescription) have an action for damages against the specific member of the professional team. The situation where the certificate is known to be inaccurate is therefore not one inherently fraught with unfairness or injustice as far as the employer is concerned.