Construction Law – The Binding Nature of Interim Adjudication Awards

In the matter of Stefannuti Stocks vs S8 Property the Court reconfirmed the enforceability of an adjudicator’s decision by court prior to final arbitration.  It also confirmed that an agreement between the parties that a decision is binding and shall be given effect to without delay, unless and until it is revised, requires immediate implementation.

Stefannuti Stocks sought an order compelling S8 Property to comply with its obligations in terms of a building agreement, more specifically for specific performance under the terms of the agreement by S8 Property by paying amounts determined by an adjudicator to be due and payable to Stefannuti Stocks.

The agreement between the parties was a standard written Joint Building Contracts Committee (‘JBCC’) Services 2000 Principal Building Agreement.

Clause 40 of the agreement provides that:


40.1 Should any disagreement arise between the employer or his principal agent or agents and the contractor as to any matter arising out of or concerning this agreement either party may give notice to the other to resolve such disagreement.

40.2 Where such disagreement is not resolved within ten (10) working days of receipt of such notice it shall be deemed to be a dispute and shall be submitted to:

40.2.1 Adjudication in terms of the edition of the JBCC Rules for Adjudication current at the time when the dispute is declared. The adjudicator shall be appointed in terms of such Rules. …

40.3 The adjudicator’s decision shall be binding on the parties who shall give effect to it without delay unless and until it is subsequently revised by an arbitrator in terms of 40.5. Should notice of dissatisfaction not be given within the period in terms of 40.4, the adjudicator’s decision shall become final and binding on the parties.

40.4 Should either party be dissatisfied with the decision given by the adjudicator, or should no decision be given within the period set out in the Rules, such party may give notice of dissatisfaction to the other party and to the adjudicator within ten (10) working days of receipt of the decision or, should no decision be given, within ten (10) working days of expiry of the date by which the decision was required to be given.

40.5 A dispute which is the subject of a notice of dissatisfaction shall be finally resolved by the arbitrator as stated in the schedule. Where such person is unwilling or unable to act, or where no person has been stated, the arbitrator shall be chosen and appointed by mutual agreement within ten (10) working days of such notice, the arbitrator shall be the person appointed at the request of either party by the chairman, or his nominee, of the Association of Arbitrators (Southern Africa). The adjudicator appointed in terms of 40.2.1 shall not be eligible for appointment as the arbitrator.”

Stefannuti Stocks, being the building contractor, referred a dispute between the parties to an adjudicator. The adjudicator issued his decision in terms of which he determined, inter alia that “the Contractor is entitled to be paid the full original preliminaries value of R2,439,677.98.

S8 Property contended that it is not obliged to give effect to the adjudicator’s decision as it had given notice of its dissatisfaction therewith pursuant to clauses 40.3 to 40.5 of the agreement.

In a recent judgment of Tubular Holdings (Pty) Ltd v DBT Technologies (Pty) Ltd handed down on 03 May 2013, the Court interpreted the following contractual provision:

“The decision shall be binding on both parties who shall promptly give effect to it unless and until it shall be revised in an amicable settlement or an arbitrated award as described below.”

The Court stated that “the effect of these provisions is that the decision shall be binding unless and until it has been revised as provided. There can be no doubt that the binding effect of the decision endures, at least, until it has been so revised. …

The scheme of these provisions is as follows: the parties must give prompt effect to a decision. If a party is dissatisfied he must nonetheless live with it but must deliver his notice of dissatisfaction within 28 days failing which it will become final and binding. If he has given his notice of dissatisfaction he can have the decision reviewed in arbitration. If he is successful the decision will be set aside. But until that has happened the decision stands and he has to comply with it.”

In the unreported decision of Esor Africa (Pty) Ltd/Franki Africa (Pty) Ltd JV and Bombela Civils JV (Pty) Ltd, the parties had referred a dispute to the DAB in terms of clause 20.4 of the FIDIC Conditions of Contract. The DAB gave its decision in favour of the contractor.  The employer refused to make payment in terms of the decision relying, inter alia, on the fact that it had given a notice of dissatisfaction and the contractor approached the Court for an order compelling compliance with the decision.  The Court commented that it regarded the wording of the relevant contractual provisions to be clear and that the effect thereof is, that, whilst the DAB decision is not final, the parties are bound by it.  It held that the key to comprehending the intention and purpose of the DAB process is the fact that neither payment nor performance could be withheld when the parties are in dispute:

“the DAB process ensures that the quid pro quo for continued performance of the contractor’s obligations even if dissatisfied with the DAB decision which it is required to give effect to is the employer’s obligation to make payment in terms of a DAB decision and that there will be a final reconciliation should either party be dissatisfied with the DAB decision…”

The Court further held that the employer was not entitled to withhold payment of the amount determined by the adjudicator and that he “is precluded by the terms of the provisions of clause 20 (and in particular clauses 20.4 and 20.6) from doing so pending the outcome of the Arbitration.”

In the case of Stocks and Stocks (Cape) v Gordon the Court could find no objection to giving effect to an agreement in terms of which interim payments are to be made which may later be followed by an adjustment of account and a claim for repayment of what has been paid should the opinion of the mediator be set aside in arbitration.  The contract referred to mediation as opposed to adjudication. It provided that the parties could obtain the opinion of a mediator but if dissatisfied, it could refer it to arbitration. The wording of the agreement read:

“The opinion of the mediator shall be binding upon the parties and shall be given effect to by them until the said opinion is overruled in any subsequent arbitration or litigation.”

In Freeman NO and another v Eskom Holdings Limited the Court considered the NEC form of contract, which provides for adjudication and for notification by the dissatisfied party to a tribunal who has the power to settle the dispute referred to it. The contract also provides that the adjudicator’s decision is binding upon the parties “unless and until” revised by the tribunal as enforceable as a matter of contractual obligation between the parties and not as an arbitral award.

In Basil Read (Pty) Ltd v Regent Devco (Pty) Ltd, Clause 40 of the JBCC Principal Building Agreement deals with dispute resolution and allows a referral of a dispute to an adjudicator. Any party dissatisfied with the adjudicator’s decision was entitled to give notice of dissatisfaction within a stipulated time and may then refer the dispute to arbitration. It stipulates, however, that “the adjudicator’s decision shall be binding upon the parties who shall give effect to it without delay unless and until it is subsequently revised by an arbitrator”. The Court construed these provisions as imposing an obligation on the dissatisfied party to give effect to the decision without delay unless and until it is subsequently set aside by the arbitrator. The dissatisfied party’s remedy is to procure set-off or adjustment in the following payment certificates should he succeed in having the decision set aside after he had performed.

In the United Kingdom the matter is dealt with by statute which gives the same effect as the clauses referred to above. The Court of Appeal remarked in the Carillion matter that:

In short, in the overwhelming majority of cases, the proper course for the party who is unsuccessful in an adjudication under the scheme must be to pay the amount that he has been ordered to pay by the adjudicator. If he does not accept the adjudicator’s decision as correct (whether on the facts or in law), he can take legal or arbitration proceedings in order to establish the true position. To seek to challenge the adjudicator’s decision on the ground that he has exceeded his jurisdiction or breached the rules of natural justice (save in the plainest cases) is likely to lead to a substantial waste of time and expense – as, we suspect, the costs incurred in the present case will demonstrate only too clearly.”

The Court also referred to the United Kingdom case of Bouygues (UK) Limited v Dahl-Jensen (UK) Limited which concerned a dispute arising from a sub-contract, which provided for dispute resolution by adjudication pursuant to the Rules of the CIC Model Adjudication Procedure (2nd edition) which provided that:

“The object of adjudication is to reach a fair, rapid and inexpensive decision upon a dispute arising under the contract and this procedure shall be interpreted accordingly. … The Adjudicator’s decision shall be binding until the dispute is finally determined by legal proceedings, by arbitration (if the contract provides for arbitration or the parties otherwise agree to arbitration) or by agreement. The parties shall implement the Adjudicator’s decision without delay whether or not the dispute is to be referred to legal proceedings or arbitration. …”

Having regard to these Rules, Justice Dyson held as follows:

the purpose of the scheme is to provide a speedy mechanism for settling disputes in construction contracts on a provisional interim basis, and requiring the decisions of adjudicators to be enforced pending final determination of disputes by arbitration, litigation or agreement, whether those decisions are wrong in point of law and fact. It is inherent in the scheme that injustices will occur, because from time to time, adjudicators will make mistakes. Sometimes these mistakes will be glaringly obvious and disastrous in their consequences for the losing party. The victims of mistakes will usually be able to recoup their losses by subsequent arbitration or litigation, and possibly even by a subsequent arbitration.”

In the present case, the terms of the relevant contractual provisions are perfectly clear: the parties are obliged to promptly give effect to a decision by the DAB. The issue of a notice of dissatisfaction does not in any way detract from this obligation; whilst such a notice is necessary where the dissatisfied party wishes to have the decision revised it does not affect that decision; it simply sets in motion the procedure in which the decision may be revised. But until revised, the decision binds the parties and they must give prompt effect thereto.

Having regard to the purpose of the provisions of the agreement by introducing a speedy settling of disputes in construction agreements on a provisional, interim basis, the Court could find no reason not to follow the judgment in Tubular Holdings, which is in harmony with the decisions of Bombela and Basil Read referred to above. The purpose of the policy to implement the adjudicator’s decision is also to obviate the tactical creation of disputes with a view to the postponement of liability. For these reasons Stafannuti Stocks was successful and the order was granted in its favour.